"The five pillars of Islam" is a name used to signify the
five duties, or five central practices of Islam. These are:
The profession of faith (shahada), which in English may be translated as: "There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is the Prophet of Allah";
Prayer (salah): Five times a day the call to prayer rings from the minaret on each Mosque (at sunrise, midday, mid-afternoon, sunset, and nightfall). Prayer time can last up to a half an hour; during prayer time, shops and restaurants close;
Fasting (syam), which is done from dawn to dusk, during the holy month of Ramadan.
Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj), which must be done at least once in a lifetime by by those who are fit enough, and financially able to do so.
For a non-Muslim, the singing of the call to prayer from the minarets in moving, especially when you here it echo throughout the desert.